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Muscular Endurance vs Strength

Workout programming can be based on muscular endurance or muscular strength (or segments of both). Incorporating both into your weekly routine can help you build and maintain a well-rounded body. Some workouts are meant to be performed at a fast pace for longer durations with minimal resistance (endurance) while some are meant to be performed at a slow pace for shorter durations with greater resistance (strength). Before we break it down a bit further, here are some examples of endurance and strength training at Active Lifestyle Fitness:

Muscular Endurance:
Indoor Cycling
Boot Camp

Muscular Strength:
Guts & Butts/Guns
Small Group*

*(sometimes also includes segments of muscular endurance training)

Booty BarreMuscular endurance is defined as the ability to sustain a muscular effort for an extended period of time (1). This type of training can be beneficial to you in every day life performing tasks such as raking leaves, shoveling snow, and climbing stairs. Success in a Cycling class, for instance, is being able to maintain the RPMs recommended by the instructor at a given resistance. The resistance will be different for everyone, but if it’s causing a decrease in your RPMs, you should lower the gear. Similarly, success in a barre class is being able to to do all of the repetitions to the beat of the music. The arm segment has added resistance (dumbbells and bands), but if you’re not able to perform all of the repetitions to the beat of the music, you should lighten the resistance.

Muscular strength is defined as the maximal force a muscle or muscle group can generate (1). This type of training can be beneficial to you in every day life performing tasks such as moving boxes or furniture and picking up your children. There are many ways to design a strength training program so it’s important to consult with your instructor, but generally speaking, you should feel a struggle to complete the reps at the end of a set while maintaining proper form. If your resistance is not high enough to feel this struggle, your strength will not increase. Also, if you are trying to fly through a strength workout without adequate rest in between sets, you are not allowing enough time for your energy supply to re-generate (ATP) and will not be getting the most out of your workout.

It is important to understand the purpose of your workout as well as how to perform it properly. Your instructor will be able to help you gauge proper resistance, pace, and rest periods for each workout. All workouts do not have the same purpose. It may not be appropriate to use as much resistance as you can or to move as quickly as you can because our bodies have different types of muscle fibers that we train in different ways. It’s a good idea to take advantage of both muscular endurance and muscular strength training while making sure to follow the instructor’s guidelines for each!

(1) Boone, T. (2014). Introduction to Exercise Physiology. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC.

Sciatica!… Or is it?

SciaticaSciatica is a catchy term often used when referring to low back pain that shoots into the hip or back of the leg… but is it really “sciatica”? Your first step should be to visit your doctor and have some tests done to determine what is causing the pain. A disc problem or other issue with the spine may be causing the nerve irritation and may need to be addressed by a specialist. If everything looks normal with your spine and you walk away without an answer, it may not be an issue with the nerve itself, but an issue with the muscles around the nerve.

Each of our muscles have a “job” and they work together to execute a movement. If one muscle isn’t doing its job, the result is usually pain. A muscle not doing its job is usually due to lack of strength and/or inhibition. When I meet with a client that reports sciatica-like symptoms and received no answers from the doctor, I almost always find weakness in the glutes and muscles of the hip. A tight muscle is compressing the nerve while another is not doing its job. We can often resolve this by correcting the imbalance, increasing range of motion, and performing myofascial release with a foam roller or working with a massage therapist.

Screen shot 2015-05-22 at 12.39.30 PMSacroiliac joint dysfunction is also often mistaken for sciatica. This is an issue related to the bones shifting in the back of the pelvis. Strengthening the abdominal muscles and muscles of the hips and low back can help to support the area, alleviate pain, and prevent subluxation. Stretching and myofascial release will also help in cases of SI joint dysfuction.

Often times we don’t think of exercise as a treatment for pain, but if you spend some time with a physical therapist or exercise specialist that is familiar with your issue, you may find that you are able to resolve the issue fairly easily. All exercise is not created equal, however, so it’s important to understand how your therapist or trainer is planning to resolve your pain. You will also find quicker and longer lasting recovery by combining exercise training (strength/flexibility) with massage therapy and/or chiropractic care.

How to Choose a Personal Trainer

The process through which some of the general public selects a personal trainer is faulty. Just like any service that you are paying for, you should choose someone who has the proper credentials and the proper experience to get you to your goal. Because many people aren’t sure what questions to ask (or are too intimidated to ask questions), they end up not seeing results and become skeptical of working with personal trainers. The only way to match up dedicated clients with GOOD trainers is to educate individuals outside of the fitness field about what qualifies us to do what we do.

General view of Personal Trainers 7/7/2013Personal Training Companies within a “gym”: beware of training companies who chase you around at the gym or “require” you to meet with them when you sign up. Many of these companies have become the “fast food” of personal training. The “menu” of exercises never changes, the service is poor, and you’re just a number in a line of clients. Ask these questions:

1) Will you always have the same trainer? If the answer is NOT “yes, absolutely” – move along. If you have 10 different trainers over the next 6 months, how are you supposed to make any progress?

2) Do you have to sign a contract? If you are unsure about whether or not you will like the trainer or the system, ask if you can purchase some trial sessions before you commit. Never sign yourself into a contract without having a good understanding of what you’re buying.

3) Ask to speak with the trainer you will be working with before you buy sessions (see below about questions to ask). If you’re not allowed to do that, move along.

4) Lastly, if you feel like you’re being pushed into buying training, move along. A good trainer will never pressure you into anything because we understand that you will ONLY see results when you are READY to commit.

The GOOD training companies are usually led by an experienced personal trainer that is selective about the trainers who work for him/her. This person will be more than happy to answer any questions you have and likely appreciative that you are doing research to make the best decision for you. You will often find these companies set up as independent training studios or privately owned gyms.

If you have found a trainer you might like to work with, here is what to look for:

1) Most importantly, do you LIKE the person? It sounds like a silly question but you will be spending a fair amount of time with this person and probably sharing some things about yourself that you might not share with other people. You want to make sure you can build a relationship based on trust with your trainer. Just like friends and co-workers, you won’t like every trainer you come across, even if they are well qualified.

2) Does this person sound like he/she is willing to work with your needs? Does the trainer seem distracted or flighty? Is the trainer asking you a lot of questions, listening to and understanding you… or is the trainer just talking AT you? You will NOT reach your goal by hiring a trainer that does not listen to you.

3) What are the trainer’s credentials? There are nationally accredited personal training certifications… and then there are certifications you can get in a cracker jack box. Some of the certifications I like and am familiar with are: ACSM, NSCA, ACE, NETA, WITS. This is not a complete list, but it’s important to be aware of whether your trainer has valid credentials.

4) How long have they been training? Would you hire a mechanic that just started working on cars last week? I would hope not, but, we all have to start somewhere. If the trainer has been in the field for less than 2 years and they are working within a good training company being mentored by an experienced trainer, you’re likely in good hands.

5) Are they experienced with clients similar to yourself and do they have testimonials and/or references? If you have a specific health issue or are training for a specific event, you can seek someone who has experience in that area though most trainers are versatile. A good trainer will be glad to give you references and/or VALID testimonials.

6) What’s the plan? You’re paying for it, so what is it?! A good trainer will be able to give you a general idea of how they will progress you toward your goal. Also, how will they track the progress? There must be a system in place.

7) Is the trainer trying to sell you on some kind of “miracle plan” pyramid scheme that consists of special supplements and a “lose weight fast” type of program? There is no replacement for hard work and healthful eating habits. If this is not the trainer’s belief system, move along. He/She is just trying to get you to empty your wallet exchange for short term results.

8) And lastly, and perhaps most obvious, if the fitness trainer is not “fit”, do not hire that person! Your trainer doesn’t have to look like a fitness model, but trainers must look like they practice what they preach!

Do not be shy about asking questions – it’s YOUR money and YOUR time! All personal trainers are NOT made equal. If something doesn’t feel right with one trainer, look for another. Make sure you choose the trainer that is right for you because it’s the difference between wasting money and achieving your goal!

Cauliflower Fried Rice

  • 1 head cauliflower, grated or chopped
  • 8 oz mushrooms, diced
  • 6 green onions, thinly sliced
  • 2 tsp grated ginger
  • 3 eggs, beaten
  • 1 tbsp coconut oil
  • 2tbsp sesame oil
  • 1/4c low sodium soy sauce
  1. Heat a large skillet to high heat. Add the coconut oil. Saute the mushrooms and ginger for ~3 min or until they begin to soften, stirring often.
  2. Add the cauliflower, green onions, and soy sauce. Saute for 5 min.
  3. Push the veggies to the side of the skillet and create a well. Crack the eggs into the well and scramble. Stir everything to combine.
  4. Add a drizzle of sesame oil and mix.


Original recipe:

Spaghetti Squash Chicken Chow Mein



  • 1 large spaghetti squash (or 2 small)
  • 4 chicken breasts, cut into chunks
  • 1/4 cup low sodium soy sauce
  • 3 cloves garlic, minced
  • 2 teaspoons ginger
  • 2 tablespoons olive oil
  • 1 onion, diced
  • 3 stalks celery, sliced diagonally
  • 2 cups cole slaw mix (shredded cabbage and carrots)


Cut a spaghetti squash in half length wise and scoop out seeds. Lay skin side up in a pan or on a sheet and bake at 400 degrees for 30-40 minutes, until flesh is very tender. Scoop out flesh with a fork so it breaks apart into strings, set aside.

Heat olive oil in a skillet and thoroughly cook chicken chunks over medium heat; set aside.

In a small bowl, whisk together soy sauce, garlic, ginger; set aside.

Heat olive oil in a large skillet over medium high heat. Add onion and celery, and cook, stirring often, until tender, about 3-4 minutes. Stir in cabbage until heated through, about 1 minute.

Stir in spaghetti squash, chicken, and soy sauce mixture until well combined, about 2 minutes.

Original recipe:

Sausage, Kale, and Spaghetti Squash


  1. 1 medium spaghetti squash or 2 small spaghetti squash
  2. 2 packages Italian chicken sausage
  3. 1 yellow onion, diced
  4. 4 cloves garlic, minced
  5. 1 bunch kale
  6. 3 tbsp extra virgin olive oil, plus more for drizzling
  7. Salt and pepper
  8. 2 tbsp pine nuts
  1. Preheat the oven to 400 degrees F. Using a sharp knife cut the squash in half lengthwise. Scoop out the seeds and discard. Place the halves, with the cut side up, on a rimmed baking sheet. Drizzle with olive oil and sprinkle with salt and pepper. Roast in the oven for 45-50 minutes, until you can poke the squash easily with a fork. Let cool until you can handle it safely.
  2. Meanwhile, prepare the kale by removing the center stems and either tearing or cutting up the leaves. Heat the olive oil in a large skillet over medium heat. Add the onion and garlic and sauté for 4-5 minutes. Add the chicken sausage chopped in chunks. Cook for 5-10 minutes. Add the kale in handfuls and stir until it wilts into the mix. Remove from heat and set aside.
  3. Once cooled, scrape the insides of the spaghetti squash with a fork to shred the squash into strands. Transfer the strands into the skillet with the sausage and toss to combine. Season to taste with salt and pepper. Top with pine nuts to serve.


The original recipe calls for raw sausage. I am not that fancy, so I used this from Big Y:


– I almost skipped the pine nuts, but they really made the dish! They’re supposed to be roasted but I’m not that motivated. If you put in the extra effort to roast, more power to you!

Original recipe:

Variety vs Muscle Confusion

muscleconfusionMuscle confusion suggests that by constantly changing the exercises and structure of your workouts, you will build muscle and lose fat.  Let me start with a brief explanation of the motor programming in our brain.  Our brain functions much like a computer.  A computer programmer will design a program to execute different functions, and those functions are always executed the same way.  For instance, if you double click on an icon on your desktop, it will always open your “finder” window because that’s the way the program is designed.  When we teach children to walk, we teach one foot in front of the other.  We help them to develop the “program” in their brains for walking.  As they continue to repeat the action of one foot in front of the other every time, the program becomes solidified and then they can build on that foundation with running, dancing, jumping, etc.  But what if we applied the concept of “muscle confusion” to teaching our children how to walk?  And instead of one foot in front of the other every time, we tried to teach them to run one day, dance another, and jump the third, expecting that this scattered “training program” will result in the child walking.  I’m guessing this would not only be a frustrating experience for both parent and child, but it would take the child much longer than necessary to learn how to walk.  This is because repetition builds the programming and muscle response necessary to optimally perform an action.

We are like children as adults except that we have developed more motor programs.  This doesn’t mean, however, that we don’t have to go through the same steps as children to develop new programs.  Think of how you first learned to do push ups.  Did you learn how to do them by doing shoulder presses and back rows?  Probably not, because only the repetitive motion of push ups with minor corrections over a period of time helped to develop the “push up programming” in your mind and muscle.  In summary, the concept of “confusing” your muscles does nothing to improve motor programming and, thus, muscle strength.

Please do not confuse the concept of muscle confusion with variety, however.  Shoulder presses and back rows will help to strengthen the muscles of your upper body which, in turn, will improve your push up form and strength.  But if that is all you do for your workouts, your strength development will plateau quickly.  You should not continue the same workout program with the same exercises for longer than 6-8 weeks.  At this point, your body has adapted and a change is needed.

Variety supports your strength in functional movement and basic fitness movements (such as squats, push ups, etc).  Variety also adds new challenges and keeps your workouts interesting.  I can find holes in any popular workout program where you are missing an important piece of training.  In other words, if you are only doing one type of exercise such as barre, yoga, CrossFit, cycling, running, etc, you are missing something that your body needs to stay balanced and strong!

Good fitness programming will have a combination of variety and repetitive exercises.  Do what you like as your core workout program and keep building strength in those movements, but don’t forget to add variety to keep your body balanced and strong.  And, variety is not confusion – confusion is just confusing!

Cajun Chicken and Quinoa


  • 4 chicken breasts, cut into chunks
  • 3 medium tomatoes, cut into chunks
  • 2 jalapenos, seeded and chopped
  • 1 yellow pepper, seeded and chopped
  • 1 green pepper, seeded and chopped
  • 1 chopped sweet onion
  • 3 cloves of garlic, minced
  • 1 tbsp tomato paste
  • 3 tbsp olive oil
  • 5 tsp Cajun seasoning
  • Salt and pepper to taste
  • 2 C cooked quinoa
  1. Toss chicken and 2 tsp Cajun seasoning together and cook in a skillet with 1 tbsp olive oil over medium heat, then set aside.
  2. Toss the tomatoes and peppers with 1 tbsp olive oil and 2 tsp Cajun seasoning, set aside.
  3. Add 1 tbsp of olive oil to a large skillet with the onion and garlic. Cook until onion becomes translucent.
  4. Add quinoa, tomato paste, 1 tsp Cajun seasoning, chicken, and tomato chunks. Mix thoroughly.


– If you’re not a spicy food fan (I love spicy!), cut the Cajun seasoning in half.

– I used a lot of chicken in this recipe.  You could easily get away with 2-3 chicken breasts, but I like my protein!

– You may want to use a casserole dish for the final mix (the skillet becomes very full) but I was able to pull it off in the skillet.

My Thesis Story

As I finish up my final semester of grad school, I’m also finishing up my thesis study to complete the Master of Science program in Exercise Physiology at Springfield College.  My topic is, “The Effect of Barre Fitness Training on Hip Strength, Hip Range of Motion, Heart Rate, Body Composition, and Functional Movement.”  I know, it’s a mouth full!  Any time you ask a researcher what the topic of their study is, though, it never comes without a story.  Here is mine…

I’ve been certified as a fitness trainer since 2002.  I go through “fitness phases.”  I like to experiment on myself because I do not believe in judging something without experiencing it personally.  I find exercise fascinating.  I’ve dabbled in bodybuilding, powerlifting, running, yoga, Pilates, CrossFit, etc, all in the name of personal education.  I considered my body to be pretty balanced and strong by the time I got to my barre instructor training course.  On a side note, I will be honest, I had no interest in teaching this at my studio.  I went because I knew it would be popular and I am a control freak.  If we are going to introduce a new program at the studio, I want it to be done the way I think it should be done, and it’s going to be executed to perfection.  But my control issues are another story for another time…

As we finished our introductions, I realized the room was full of dance instructors, yoga/Pilates instructors, and only 2 other fitness instructors.  When we hit the barre, our differences became evident.  I clearly was not as balanced as I thought I was.  These women had beautiful core stabilization with incredible hip range of motion.  It took a lot of effort for me to abduct my leg to get even a quarter of their range of motion.  All of these years I spent training my body, and I can’t lift my leg out to the side???  Embarrassing.

After a weekend beating (these Master Trainers are no joke), I left more sore than I had been in a long time because the small muscles in my hips had never been isolated and attacked like that.  I started with teaching a few classes at the studio and the program instantly became a hit.  For several months, I was teaching up to 13 barre classes per week!  My hip range of motion and hip strength improved dramatically, but more importantly, my members were seeing instant results as well.

Several runners noted a10338699_784108331681147_3492024351306454149_nn improvement in their running time and also a decrease in leg/hip pain that occurred over long distances.  Runners have notoriously weak glutes.  Several members reported a decrease in lower back and knee pain that had resulted from various causes.  I felt that there was something to this program that I had never seen before in any of my “fitness phases” and that it should be examined further.  There is a lot of research on the effect of Pilates on various pathologies, but barre training is new territory, and I believe may offer even more benefits than a Pilates program.

If we are friends on Facebook, you may think that I am obsessed with barre.  While I believe barre has many benefits, and I hope to demonstrate this with the results of my study, I do not believe it should be your only form of exercise.  In fact, I do not believe any one form of exercise should be your only form of exercise.  In my next blog post, I will share with you the benefits of exercise variety, and why it is essential to build a balanced body!